Galapagos Species Checklist

Toxoplasma gondii

(Nicolle & Manceaux, 1908)

Domain Eukaryota
Kingdom Chromalveolata (= Chromista)
Division Apicomplexa
Class Sporozoasid
Order Eucoccidiorida
Family Sarcocystidae
Genus Toxoplasma

Toxoplasma gondii  (Nicolle & Manceaux, 1908)


English common name: toxoplasmosis

Name status: Accepted name; taxon occurs in Galapagos.

Description: endoparasite

Serologic evidence of exposure in Galapagos Penguin (Spheniscus mendiculus), and Phalacrocorax harrisi (Flightless Cormorant) from Fernandina and Isabela and domestic cats in Isabela.

Last updated: 31 May 2013


  • In
  • Na

  • Ac

    Taxon accidentally introduced, naturalized in the wild.

  • Cu
  • Er
  • Es
  • Ic
  • AcQ
    Questionable Accidental
  • NaQ
    Questionable Native


Galapagos island groups: Isabela, Santa Cruz.

Fernandina and Isabela

Please be aware that this distribution map is automatically generated from database records (CDF and external specimens, literature records, and observations) and may not accurately reflect the currently-known distribution for all species.


  • Deem, S.L., Merkel, J., Ballweber, J., Vargas, F.H., Cruz, M.B., & Parker, P.G. (2010) Exposure to Toxoplasma gondii in Galapagos penguins (Spheniscus mendiculus) and flightless cormorants (Phalacrocorax harrisi) in the Galapagos Islands. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 46: 1005-1011.
  • Gottdenker, N.L., Walsh, T., Vargas, H., Merkel, J., Jiménez-Uzcátegui, G., J., Miller, R.E., Dailey, M. & Parker, P. (2005) Assessing the risks of introduced chickens and their pathogens to native birds in the Galápagos Archipelago. Biological Conservation 126: 429–439.
  • Levy, J.K., Crawford, C., Lappin, M.R., Dubovi, E.J,. Levy, M.G., Alleman, R., Tucker, S.J. & Clifford, E.L. (2008) Infectious diseases of dogs and cats on Isabela island, Galapagos. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 22: 60-65.
  • Parker, P.G., Whiteman, N.K., & Miller, R.E. (2006) Conservation medicine on the Galápagos Islands: partnerships among behavioral, population, and veterinarian scientists. The Auk 123(3): 625-638.