Galapagos Species Checklist


Camarhynchus heliobates

(Snodgras & Heller, 1901)

Domain Eukaryota
Kingdom Animalia
Division Chordata
Class Aves
Order Passeriformes
Family Thraupidae
Genus Camarhynchus

Camarhynchus heliobates  (Snodgras & Heller, 1901)

 

English common name: Mangrove Finch

Spanish common name: Pinzón de manglar

Taxonomic comments: Syn.: Cactospiza heliobates (Snodgras & Heller, 1901); Geospiza heliobates Snodgras & Heller, 1901

Name status: Accepted name; taxon occurs in Galapagos.

Last updated: 03 Mar 2017

Origin

  • In
    Introduced
  • Na
    Native

  • En
    Endemic

    Taxon occurs only in Galapagos.

  • Hy
    Hypothetical
  • Id
    Indigenous
  • Mi
    Migrant
  • EnQ
    Questionable Endemic
  • Re
    Resident
  • Va
    Vagrant

IUCN Status

Facing an extremely high risk of extinction in the wild.

Critically Endangered - Facing an extremely high risk of extinction in the wild.


The IUCN Red List assessments presented here may deviate from the global IUCN listings for the following reasons:

  • for well-known species groups, such as vascular plants or vertebrates, updates proposed to the IUCN are shown, rather than the outdated, but currently-used status;
  • for poorly-known species groups, such as lichenized fungi, a general assessment is not currently possible, therefore the list presented here is the regional IUCN Red List for the Galapagos Archipelago.

Distribution

region.name region.name

Galapagos island groups: Fernandina, Isabela.

Present on Playa Tortuga Negra, Caleta Black and Cartago on Isabela Island. Extinct on Fernandina.

Preference for altitude zone in Galapagos: Coastal zone.


Please be aware that this distribution map is automatically generated from database records (CDF and external specimens, literature records, and observations) and may not accurately reflect the currently-known distribution for all species.

General Ecology

Habitat preferences: Mixed mangroves with red (Rhizophora mangle), black (Avicennia germinans) and white (Laguncularia racemosa) mangrove trees preferred for both foraging and nesting.

Trophic role: Carnivorous (feeding on animals).

Feeding type: Insectivorous (feeding on insects).
Feeds on arthropods found in litter on the ground, dead wood or apical buds of red mangrove. Habitat must be rich in accumulated leaf litter as foraging is intensive.

Reproductive biology: Always nests in the outermost branches of the canopy of black (Avicennia germinans) and white (Laguncularia racemosa) mangrove trees and show a pronounced preference for the very high branches of black mangrove where available,. Red mangroves are an important feeding substrate but not used for nesting. Male displays in front of a dome shape nest. Once chosen, the pair either use this nest or build a new one. Only females incubate (two to three eggs), both feed the chicks. Fledglings stay for up to 6 weeks with a parent, either with the male while the female starts a new clutch, or, one with the female and the other with the male.

Literature

  • Bisconti, M., Landini, W., Bianucci, G., Cantalamessa, G., Carnevale, G. Ragaini, L. & Valleri, G. (2001) Biogeographic relationships of the Galapagos terrestrial biota: parsimony analyses of endemicity based on reptiles, land birds and Scalesia land plants. J. Biogeogr. 28: 495-510.
  • Brumm, H., Farrington, H., Petren, K. & Fessl, B. (2010) Evolutionary dead end in the Galapagos: divergence of sexual signals in the rarest of Darwin’s finches. PlosOne PLoS ONE, 5:11191.
  • Christensen, R., Kleindorfer, S. (2009) Jack-of-all-trades or master of one? Variation in foraging specialisation across years in Darwin’s Tree Finches (Camarhynchus spp.). Journal of Ornithology 150:383-391.
  • Cunninghame, F., Young, H., Sevilla, C., Carrión, V. & Fessl, B. (2013) A trial translocation of the critically endangered mangrove finch: Conservation management to prevent the extinction of Darwin’s rarest finch. Galapagos Report 2011-2012, GNPS, GCREG, CDF and GC. Puerto Ayora, Galapagos, Ecuador., :174-179.
  • Dvorak, M., Vargas, H., Fessl, B. & Tebbich, B. (2004) On the verge of extinction: a survey of the mangrove finch Cactospiza heliobates and its habitat on the Galápagos islands. Oryx 38:1-9.
  • Farrington, H., Lawson, L., Clark, C. & Petren, K. (2014) The evolutionary history of Darwin's finches: speciation, gene flow, and introgression in a fragmented landscape. Evolution doi 10.1111/evo.12484.
  • Fessl, B., Loaiza, A., Tebbich, B. & Young, H. (2010) Feeding and nesting requirements of the critically endangered Mangrove Finch Camarhynchus heliobates. Journal of Ornithology.
  • Fessl, B., Vargas, H., Carrion, V., Young, R., Deem, S., Rodriguez-Matamoros, J., Atkinson, R., Grenier, C., Carvajal, O., Tebbich, S. & Young, H. (2010) Galápagos Mangrove Finch Camarhynchus heliobates Recovery Plan 2010-2015. Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust, Charles Darwin Foundation, Galápagos National Park Service.
  • Fessl, B., Young, H. G., Young, R. P., Rodríguez-Matamoros, J., Dvorak, M. & Tebbich, S. (2010) How to save the rarest Darwin’s finch from extinction: the mangrove finch on Isabela Island. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B: Biological Sciences 365:1019–1030.
  • Fessl, B., Dvorak, M., Vargas, F. & Young, H. (2011) Recent conservation efforts and identification of the critically endangered mangrove finch Camarhynchus heliobates in Galapagos. Cotinga 33:27-33.
  • Grant, P.R., Grant, B.R. (1997) The rarest of Darwin's Finches. Conservation Biology 11:119-127.
  • Harris, M.P. (1973) The Galápagos avifauna. Condor 75(3): 265-278.
  • IUCN (2017) The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species Version 2016-3. . Downloaded on 03 February 2017.
  • IUCN (2015) The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015-4. . Downloaded on 20 November 2015.
  • Jiménez-Uzcátegui, G., Milstead, B., Márquez, C., Zabala, J., Buitrón, P., Llerena, A., et al. (2007) Galapagos vertebrates: endangered status and conservation actions. Galapagos Report 2006–2007. Charles Darwin Foundation, Puerto Ayora, p. 104–110.
  • Lamichhaney, S., Berglund, J., Sällman Almén, M., Maqbool, K., Grabherr, M., Martinez-Barrio, A., Promerova, M., Rubin, C.J., Wang, C., Zamani, N., Grant, B.R., Grant, P.R., Webster, M.T., Andersson, L. (2015) Evolution of Darwin’s finches and their beaks revealed by genome sequencing Nature 518: 371-386. doi:10.1038/nature14181
  • Petren, K., Grant, B. & Grant, P. (1999) A phylogeny of Darwin's finches based on microsatellite DNA length variation. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B-Biological Sciences 266:321-329.
  • Remsen, J.V., Areta, J.I.Jr., Cadena, C.D., Claramunt, S., Jaramillo, A., Pacheco, J.F., Pérez-Emán, J., Robbins, M.B., Stiles, F.G., Stotz, D.F., Zimmer, K. J. (2016) A Classification of the Bird Species of South America. South American Classification Committee. American Ornithologists' Union http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm
  • Swarth, H.S. (1931) The Avifauna of the Galapagos Islands. Occ. Pap. Calif. Acad. Sci. 18: 1-299.
  • Wiedenfeld, D.A. (2006) Aves, the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador. Check List 2006 2(2): 1-27.
  • Wiedenfeld, D.A., Jiménez-Uzcátegui, G. (2008) Critical problems for bird conservation in the Galapagos Island. Cotinga 29: 22-27.