Galapagos Species Checklist


Camarhynchus parvulus

(Gould, 1837)

Domain Eukaryota
Kingdom Animalia
Division Chordata
Class Aves
Order Passeriformes
Family Thraupidae
Genus Camarhynchus

Camarhynchus parvulus  (Gould, 1837)

 

English common name: Small Tree Finch

Spanish common name: Pinzón arboreo pequeño

Taxonomic comments: Syn.: Camarhynchus parvulus parvulus (Gould 1837); Camarhynchus parvulus salvini Ridgway 1894; Geospiza parvulus (Gould, 1837); Camarhynchus prosthemelas (Schlater & Salvin, 1870).

Name status: Accepted name; taxon occurs in Galapagos.

Description: Smallest of the Darwin tree finches, 13 gr average, same as small ground finch. Short conical beak. Males develop a black hood with age, starting with face and head, while upper parts are olive green and underparts creamy. Males in San Cristóbal hardly ever have black plumage, but upper breast is heavily streaked. Females and young males have green-olive upper parts and creamy to yellowish underparts.

Threats
Known to be affected by the parasitic fly Philornis downsi that causes heavy chick mortality. Recent studies showed very low breeding success that may cause long term population collapse.

Last updated: 03 Mar 2017

Origin

  • In
    Introduced
  • Na
    Native

  • En
    Endemic

    Taxon occurs only in Galapagos.

  • Hy
    Hypothetical
  • Id
    Indigenous
  • Mi
    Migrant
  • EnQ
    Questionable Endemic
  • Re
    Resident
  • Va
    Vagrant

IUCN Status

Lowest risk category. Does not qualify for a more at risk category. Widespread and abundant taxa are included in this category.

Least Concern - Lowest risk category. Does not qualify for a more at risk category. Widespread and abundant taxa are included in this category.


The IUCN Red List assessments presented here may deviate from the global IUCN listings for the following reasons:

  • for well-known species groups, such as vascular plants or vertebrates, updates proposed to the IUCN are shown, rather than the outdated, but currently-used status;
  • for poorly-known species groups, such as lichenized fungi, a general assessment is not currently possible, therefore the list presented here is the regional IUCN Red List for the Galapagos Archipelago.

Distribution

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Galapagos island groups: Española, Fernandina, Floreana, Isabela, Pinta, Pinzón, San Cristóbal, Santa Cruz, Santa Fé, Santiago, Wolf.

Found on Isabela, Fernandina, Santa Cruz, Santiago, San Cristobal, Floreana, Baltra, Santa Fe, Pinzon y Rabida. Has been seen on Pinta but it is not known if there isa breeding population there. Found mostly in the highlands and the transitional zone.


Please be aware that this distribution map is automatically generated from database records (CDF and external specimens, literature records, and observations) and may not accurately reflect the currently-known distribution for all species.

General Ecology

Habitat preferences: Found in forests both in the humid and more arid transition zones.

Trophic role: Carnivorous (feeding on animals).

Feeding type: Approx. 50% of diet comprises insects and larvae foraged mainly from trees and moss above ground level although they do occasionally forage on the ground. The other half of their diet comprises fruits, seeds, young leaves, flowers and nectar. There is variation in the diet between the humid and arid zones, and between seasons (more fruit is eaten in the dry season).

Reproductive biology: Male displays in front of a dome shape nest high up in the canopy. Once chosen, the pair either use this nest or build a new one. Only females incubate (two to three eggs), both feed the chicks. Fledglings stay for up to 6 weeks with a parent, either with the male while the female starts a new clutch, or, one with the female and the other with the male.

Photos

Literature

  • Bisconti, M., Landini, W., Bianucci, G., Cantalamessa, G., Carnevale, G. Ragaini, L. & Valleri, G. (2001) Biogeographic relationships of the Galapagos terrestrial biota: parsimony analyses of endemicity based on reptiles, land birds and Scalesia land plants. J. Biogeogr. 28: 495-510.
  • Christensen, R., Kleindorfer, S. (2007) Assortative pairing and divergent evolution in Darwin’s Small Tree Finch, Camarhynchus parvulus. Journal of Ornithology 148:463-470.
  • Christensen, R., Kleindorfer, S. (2009) Bill Morphology Does Not Influence Vocal Performance in Darwin’s Small Tree Finch on Floreana Island. Zoological Research 33:423-428.
  • Christensen, R., Kleindorfer, S. (2009) Jack-of-all-trades or master of one? Variation in foraging specialisation across years in Darwin’s Tree Finches (Camarhynchus spp.). Journal of Ornithology 150:383-391.
  • Christensen, R., Robertson, J. & Kleindorfer, S. (2010) Male response to intruders is related to song characteristics in Darwin’s small tree finch (Camarhynchus parvulus). Journal of Ethology 28:371-377.
  • Christensen, R., Kleindorfer, S. & Robertson, J. (2006) Song is a reliable signal of bill morphology in Darwin's small tree finch Camarhynchus parvulus, and vocal performance predicts male pairing success. Journal of Avian Biology 37:617-624.
  • Cimadom, A., Ulloa, A., Meidl, P., Zöttl, M., Zöttl, E., Fessl, B., Nemeth, E., Dvorak, M., Cunninghame, F. & Tebbich, S. (2014) Invasive parasites, habitat change and heavy rainfall reduce breeding success in Darwin’s Finches. Plos One 9:e107518.
  • Donohue, K. (2011) Darwin's Finches: Readings in the Evolution of a Scientific Paradigm University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 492 pp.
  • Dvorak, M., Fessl, B., Nemeth, E., Kleindorfer, S.M., & Tebbich, S. (2012) Distribution and abundance of Darwin ́s Finches and other land birds on Santa Cruz Island Galapagos: evidence for declining populations. Oryx 46:78-86
  • Farrington, H., Lawson, L., Clark, C. & Petren, K. (2014) The evolutionary history of Darwin's finches: speciation, gene flow, and introgression in a fragmented landscape. Evolution doi 10.1111/evo.12484.
  • Fessl, B., Tebbich, S. (2002) Philornis downsi - a recently discovered parasite on the Galápagos archipelago - a threat to Darwin's finches? Ibis 144: 445-451.
  • Fessl, B., Couri, M.S. & Tebbich, S. (2001) Philornis downsi Dodge & Aitken, new to the Galapagos Islands
    (Diptera, Muscidae).
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  • IUCN (2017) The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species Version 2016-3. . Downloaded on 03 February 2017.
  • IUCN (2015) The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015-4. . Downloaded on 20 November 2015.
  • Jiménez-Uzcátegui, G., Betancourt, F. (2008) Avifauna vs automotores. Informe Galápagos 2007-2008. FCD, PNG & INGALA. Puerto Ayora, Ecuador. p. 111–114.
  • Jiménez-Uzcátegui, G., Milstead, B., Márquez, C., Zabala, J., Buitrón, P., Llerena, A., et al. (2007) Galapagos vertebrates: endangered status and conservation actions. Galapagos Report 2006–2007. Charles Darwin Foundation, Puerto Ayora, p. 104–110.
  • Kleindorfer, S., Dudaniec, R.Y. (2006) Increasing prevalence of avian poxvirus in Darwin’s finches and its effect on male pairing success. Journal of Avian Biology 37: 69-76.
  • Kleindorfer, S., Dudaniec, R. (2009) Love thy neighbour? Social nesting pattern, host mass and nest size affect ectoparasite intensity in Darwin’s tree finches. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 63:731-739.
  • Kleindorfer, S., Sulloway, F. & O’Connor, J. (2009) Mixed species nesting associations in Darwin’s tree finches: nesting pattern predicts predation outcome. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 98:313-324.
  • Kleindorfer, S., O’Connor, J., Dudaniec, R., Myers, S., Robertson, J. & Sulloway, F. (2014) Species collapse via hybridization in Darwin’s Tree Finches. The American Naturalist 183: 325-341
  • Lamichhaney, S., Berglund, J., Sällman Almén, M., Maqbool, K., Grabherr, M., Martinez-Barrio, A., Promerova, M., Rubin, C.J., Wang, C., Zamani, N., Grant, B.R., Grant, P.R., Webster, M.T., Andersson, L. (2015) Evolution of Darwin’s finches and their beaks revealed by genome sequencing Nature 518: 371-386. doi:10.1038/nature14181
  • Lincango, M.P., Causton, C.E., Calderón-Álvarez, C. & Jiménez-Uzcátegui, G. (2011) Evaluating the safety of Rodolia cardinalis to two species of Galapagos finch: Camarhynchus parvulus and Geospiza fuliginosa. Biological control 56: 145-149. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocontrol.2010.10.006
  • McQuistion, T.E., Wilson, M. (1988) Four new species of Isospora from the small tree finch (Camarhynchus parvulus) from the Galapagos Islands. Journal of Protozoology 35(1): 98-99.
  • O'Connor, J., Sulloway, F. & Kleindorfer, S. (2010) Avian population survey in the Floreana highlands: Is Darwin’s Medium Tree Finch declining in remnant patches of Scalesia forest? Bird Conservation International 20:1-11.
  • O'Connor, J., Sulloway, F. & Kleindorfer, S. (2010) Avian population survey in the Floreana highlands: Is Darwin’s Medium Tree Finch declining in remnant patches of Scalesia forest?. Bird Conservation International 20:1-11.
  • Remsen, J.V., Areta, J.I.Jr., Cadena, C.D., Claramunt, S., Jaramillo, A., Pacheco, J.F., Pérez-Emán, J., Robbins, M.B., Stiles, F.G., Stotz, D.F., Zimmer, K. J. (2016) A Classification of the Bird Species of South America. South American Classification Committee. American Ornithologists' Union http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm
  • Salvin, O. (1876) On the avifauna of the Galápagos Archipelago. Transactions of the Zoological Society of London 9: 447-510.
  • Sundevall, C.J. (1871) On birds from the Galápagos Islands. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1871: 124-129.
  • Swarth, H.S. (1931) The Avifauna of the Galapagos Islands. Occ. Pap. Calif. Acad. Sci. 18: 1-299.
  • Tebbich, S., Taborsky, M., Fessl, B., Dvorak, M. & Winkler, H. (2004) Feeding behavior of four arboreal Darwin's finches: adaptations to spatial and seasonal variability. The Condor 106:95-105
  • Wiedenfeld, D.A. (2006) Aves, the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador. Check List 2006 2(2): 1-27.
  • Zylberberg, M., Lee, K., Klasing, K. & Wikelski, M. (2012) Increasing avian pox prevalence varies by species, and with immune function, in Galápagos finches. Biological Conservation 153:72-79.