Galapagos Species Checklist


Camarhynchus psittacula

Gould, 1837

Domain Eukaryota
Kingdom Animalia
Division Chordata
Class Aves
Order Passeriformes
Family Thraupidae
Genus Camarhynchus

Camarhynchus psittacula  Gould, 1837

 

English common name: Large Tree Finch

Spanish common name: Pinzón arboreo grande

Taxonomic comments: Syn.: Camarhynchus psittaculus Gould, 1841; Camarhynchus psittacula affinis Ridgway, 1894; Camarhynchus psittacula habeli Sclater & Salvin, 1870; Camarhynchus psittacula psittacula Gould, 1837; Camarhynchus habeli Sclater & Salvin, 1870.

Name status: Accepted name; taxon occurs in Galapagos.

Description: This is the largest and heaviest bodied of the tree-finch species, 18 g average. Medium long and heavy, parrot like beak, approximately as long as deep.

Threats
It iIs known to be affected by the parasitic fly Philornis downsi that causes heavy chick mortality. There is no information on impact of pox and other diseases; might be sensitive to habitat changes related to human activities.

Last updated: 03 Mar 2017

Origin

  • In
    Introduced
  • Na
    Native

  • En
    Endemic

    Taxon occurs only in Galapagos.

  • Hy
    Hypothetical
  • Id
    Indigenous
  • Mi
    Migrant
  • EnQ
    Questionable Endemic
  • Re
    Resident
  • Va
    Vagrant

IUCN Status

Considered to be facing a high risk of extinction in the wild.

Vulnerable - Considered to be facing a high risk of extinction in the wild.


The IUCN Red List assessments presented here may deviate from the global IUCN listings for the following reasons:

  • for well-known species groups, such as vascular plants or vertebrates, updates proposed to the IUCN are shown, rather than the outdated, but currently-used status;
  • for poorly-known species groups, such as lichenized fungi, a general assessment is not currently possible, therefore the list presented here is the regional IUCN Red List for the Galapagos Archipelago.

Distribution

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Galapagos island groups: Floreana, Isabela, Marchena, Pinta, Pinzón, Santa Cruz, Santa Fé, Santiago.

The species is found on all the main islands except Española, Genovesa, Wolf and Darwin. It does not now breed on Santa Fe, although observations continued until 1968. It is extinct on Pinzón, where it was last seen in 1906.


Please be aware that this distribution map is automatically generated from database records (CDF and external specimens, literature records, and observations) and may not accurately reflect the currently-known distribution for all species.

General Ecology

Habitat preferences: May be found in all altitudes from the arid coastal zone to the humid Scalesia forest, though in lower density in the former.

Feeding type: This finch has quite specialized feeding habits, mainly harvesting arthropods, adults and larvae, pecking through the bark of twigs and leaf petioles, occasionally in moss on trees in the humid season. Also feeds on fruits in the humid Scalesia forest during the dry season. Feeding habits are rather constant among zones and season (dry and humid), being the least flexible of the tree finches.

Reproductive biology: Male displays in front of a dome shape nest high up in the canopy. Once chosen, the pair either use this nest – or build a new one. Only females are incubating (two to three eggs), both feed the chicks. Fledglings stay for up to 6 weeks with a parent, either with the male while the female starts a new clutch, or, one with the female and the other with the male.

Photos

Literature

  • Bisconti, M., Landini, W., Bianucci, G., Cantalamessa, G., Carnevale, G. Ragaini, L. & Valleri, G. (2001) Biogeographic relationships of the Galapagos terrestrial biota: parsimony analyses of endemicity based on reptiles, land birds and Scalesia land plants. J. Biogeogr. 28: 495-510.
  • Donohue, K. (2011) Darwin's Finches: Readings in the Evolution of a Scientific Paradigm University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 492 pp.
  • Dudaniec, R.Y., Fessl, B. & Kleindorfer, S. (2007) Interannual and interspecific variation in intensity of the parasitic fly, Philornis downsi, in Darwin’s finches. Biological Conservation 30: 325-323.
  • Dvorak, M., Fessl, B., Nemeth, E., Kleindorfer, S.M., & Tebbich, S. (2012) Distribution and abundance of Darwin ́s Finches and other land birds on Santa Cruz Island Galapagos: evidence for declining populations. Oryx 46:78-86
  • Farrington, H., Lawson, L., Clark, C. & Petren, K. (2014) The evolutionary history of Darwin's finches: speciation, gene flow, and introgression in a fragmented landscape. Evolution doi 10.1111/evo.12484.
  • Fessl, B., Tebbich, S. (2002) Philornis downsi - a recently discovered parasite on the Galápagos archipelago - a threat to Darwin's finches? Ibis 144: 445-451.
  • Fessl, B., Couri, M.S. & Tebbich, S. (2001) Philornis downsi Dodge & Aitken, new to the Galapagos Islands
    (Diptera, Muscidae).
    Studia Dipterologic 8: 317-322.
  • Granizo, T., Pacheco, C., Rivadeneira, M. B., Guerrero M. & Suárez, L. (eds.) (2002) Libro Rojo de las Aves del Ecuador. SIMBIOE/Conservation International/EcoCiencia/Ministerio del Ambiente/IUCN. Serie Libros Rojos del Ecuador, tomo 2. Quito, Ecuador.
  • Guerrero, A., Tye, A. (2009) Darwin's Finches as seed predators and dispersers. The Wilson Journal Of Ornithology 121 (4):752-764, 2009
  • Harris, M.P. (1973) The Galápagos avifauna. Condor 75(3): 265-278.
  • IUCN (2017) The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species Version 2016-3. . Downloaded on 03 February 2017.
  • IUCN (2015) The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015-4. . Downloaded on 20 November 2015.
  • Jiménez-Uzcátegui, G., Milstead, B., Márquez, C., Zabala, J., Buitrón, P., Llerena, A., et al. (2007) Galapagos vertebrates: endangered status and conservation actions. Galapagos Report 2006–2007. Charles Darwin Foundation, Puerto Ayora, p. 104–110.
  • Kleindorfer, S., Dudaniec, R.Y. (2006) Increasing prevalence of avian poxvirus in Darwin’s finches and its effect on male pairing success. Journal of Avian Biology 37: 69-76.
  • Kleindorfer, S., O’Connor, J., Dudaniec, R., Myers, S., Robertson, J. & Sulloway, F. (2014) Species collapse via hybridization in Darwin’s Tree Finches. The American Naturalist 183: 325-341
  • Remsen, J.V., Areta, J.I.Jr., Cadena, C.D., Claramunt, S., Jaramillo, A., Pacheco, J.F., Pérez-Emán, J., Robbins, M.B., Stiles, F.G., Stotz, D.F., Zimmer, K. J. (2016) A Classification of the Bird Species of South America. South American Classification Committee. American Ornithologists' Union http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm
  • Salvin, O. (1876) On the avifauna of the Galápagos Archipelago. Transactions of the Zoological Society of London 9: 447-510.
  • Swarth, H.S. (1931) The Avifauna of the Galapagos Islands. Occ. Pap. Calif. Acad. Sci. 18: 1-299.
  • Tebbich, S., Taborsky, M., Fessl, B., Dvorak, M. & Winkler, H. (2004) Feeding behavior of four arboreal Darwin's finches: adaptations to spatial and seasonal variability. The Condor 106:95-105
  • Wiedenfeld, D.A. (2006) Aves, the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador. Check List 2006 2(2): 1-27.