Galapagos Species Checklist


Rubus niveus

Thunb.

Domain Eukaryota
Kingdom Plantae
Division Magnoliophyta
Class Magnoliopsida (= Dicotyledoneae)
Order Rosales
Family Rosaceae
Genus Rubus

Rubus niveus  Thunb.

 

English common name: Blackberry, hill raspberry, Ceylon raspberry

Spanish common name: mora, mora de Castilla, mora de monte, mora extranjera, mora silvestre o morita

Local name: mora

Taxonomic comments: Syn. over 20 names, including Rubus albescens Roxb.; Rubus lasiocarpus Sm.

Name status: Accepted name; taxon occurs in Galapagos.

Description: A climbing perennial shrub that can grow to a height of 5m and under all light conditions. The stems are smooth and spiny with a whitish sheen. The green leaves have 7 to 10 leaflets with a whitish fur on the underside. The pink flowers occur in groups of 20-50. Fruit look like blackberries, sweet to taste, purple and furry. The plant grows quickly and produces flowers and fruits from 6 months of age. The fruits are dispered by animals, and the seeds remain viable in the soil for at least 4 years. It can also spread by suckers.

There are four other species of Rubus introduced to Galapagos, however, this is the only one that has spread.

Year of first record: 1968

Last updated: 16 Oct 2017

Origin

  • In
    Introduced
  • Na
    Native

  • Ac
    Accidental
  • Cu
    Cultivated
  • Er
    Eradicated
  • Es
    Escaped

    Taxon introduced for agricultural or domestic use; naturalized in the wild.

  • Ic
    Intercepted
  • AcQ
    Questionable Accidental
  • NaQ
    Questionable Native

Distribution

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Galapagos island groups: Floreana, Isabela, San Cristóbal, Santa Cruz, Santiago.

Santa Cruz, San Cristobal, Isabela, Floreana, Santiago. The distribution on Santa Cruz and San Cristobal is broad and affects the agricultural area and National Park on both islands. The distribution on Isabela, Floreana, and Santiago is smaller but it is expanding rapidly.

Preference for altitude zone in Galapagos: Humid zone.

Native range: Introduced from India via South Africa and Central America to Ecuador. Introduced several times to Santa Cruz island, Galapagos for its fruit, starting in 1968, and from there to the other islands.

Distribution classification: Paleotemperate.


Please be aware that this distribution map is automatically generated from database records (CDF and external specimens, literature records, and observations) and may not accurately reflect the currently-known distribution for all species.

General Ecology

Habitat preferences: Prefers moist to wet areas. Found in forest edges, riparian habitats, woodland, and disturbed sites.

Trophic role: Primary producer (autotroph: an organism that does not require organic matter to feed on but is capable to produce its own energy).

Growth form: Shrubs.

Reproductive biology: Fruit is dispersed by animals, especially birds. The seeds remain viable in soil for at least 4 years. The plant is also able to spread vegetatively, producing roots when its long branches touch the ground.

Dispersal mechanism: Various.

Dispersal propagule: Fruit.
Seeds are dispersed via ingestion by animals, especially birds.

Economic use: Introduced for its fruit. Fruit still used for jams.

Invasion Ecology

Aggressive status: Transformer (An introduced species that is in the process of drastically, fundamentally and often irreversibly changing natural habitat.).

Form of introduction: Intentional introduction.

Impact in Galapagos: In Galapagos, Rubus niveus has invaded open vegetation, shrubs and forests, forming dense patches up to 4 m high, replacing native vegetation and threatening many native communities such as Scalesia pedunculata forest. In the agricultural zone, R. niveus has spread aggressively, making land unsuitable for agriculture, and causing serious economic problems for farmers.

Known pest elsewhere: Southern Africa, Central and Southern America, Hawaii, Australia

Impact elsewhere: Known problem in Hawaii for agriculture.

Persistence mechanisms: Seeds

Management

Control history in Galapagos: Seedlings can be pulled by hand. The use of herbicide (picloram) on leaves can kill the plants. Due to its extent in Galapagos, cover, a seed bank that lasts about 4 years, and the rapid growth of plants from seedling to reproduction, manual and chemical control is complicated. This species would be as ideal target for biological control.

Control methods elsewhere: In Hawaii a herbicide cocktail is used consisting of Garlon 4, Roundup Promax and Escort XP or, Milestone VM Plus.

Indicator

Temperature tolerance: Wide range (adapted to a wide range of temperatures).

Continentality: Continental (Distribution of a terrestrial species far away from the ocean.).

Light tolerance: Wide range (adapted to a wide range of light regimes).

Precipitation preference: Wide range (adapted to a wide range of rainfall).

Adaptation to substrate moisture: Wide range (adapted to a wide range of substrate moisture).

Exposure tolerance: Wide range (adapted to a wide range of light-, rain-, wind-exposure).

Photos

Literature

  • Blake, S., Wikelski, M., Cabrera, F., Guézou, A., Silva, M., Sadeghayobi, E., Yackulik, C. & Jaramillo, P. (2011) Gardeners of Galapagos? Seed dispersal by giant tortoises. Journal of Biogeography (submission): 1-41.
  • Chen, J., Craven, L.A. (2007) Flora of China. Flora of China 13: 321–328. http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=10599
  • Crespo, F. (2012) Simulación herbívora para un potencial agente defoliador de Rubus niveus en las Islas Galápagos Trabajo de grado. Universidad del Azuay. Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnología. Ecuela de Biología del Medio Ambiente.
  • Gardener, M., Atkinson, R., Rueda, D. & Hobbs, R. (2010) Optimizando la restauración de la degradada parte alta de Galápagos: un marco conceptual. Informe Galápagos 2009-2010.
  • Gardener, M. R., A. Tye and S.R. Wilkinson (1999) Control of Introduced plants in the Galapagos Islands. Twelfth Australian Weeds Conference, Tasmania Weed Society. Pp 396-400.
  • Gerecke, R., Peck, S.B. & Pehofer, H.E. (1995) The invertebrate fauna of the inland waters of the Galápagos Archipelago (Ecuador) - a limnological and zoogeographical summary. Arch. Hydrobiol./ Suppl. 107(2): 113-147.
  • Gordillo, J. (1987) La colonización de San Cristobal, Islas Galápagos una Perspectiva Histórica Memorias. Investigación Botánica y Manejo en Galápagos.Pg. 278-281
  • Guézou, A., Trueman, M., Buddenhagen, E., Chamorro, S., Guerrero, A.M., Pozo, P., Atkinson, R. (2010) An extensive Alien Plan Inventory from the Inhabited Areas of Galapagos Plos One/ www.plosone.org. Volume 5/ Issue 4/e10276
  • Heleno, R., Blake, S., Jaramillo, P., Traveset, A., Vargas, P. & Nogales, M. (2011) Frugivory and seed dispersal in the Galápagos: what is the state of the art? Integrative Zoology 6: 110-128.
  • Jaramillo, P. (1999) Impact of Human Activities on the Native Plant Life in Galapagos National Park. Galapagos Report, 50-55 (Eds P. Ospina and E. Muñóz.). Quito-Ecuador: Fundación Natura and World Wildlife Fund (WWF).
  • Jaramillo, P. (1999) Impacto de las Actividades Humanas sobre las comunidades de plantas nativas en el Parque Nacional Galápagos. Informe Galápagos, 50-55 (Eds P. Ospina and E. Muñóz). Quito-Ecuador: Fundación Natura y el Fondo Mundial para la Naturaleza (WWF).
  • Laegaard, S., García, P.P. (2004) Invasive grasses in the Galapagos Islands. Lyonia, 6(2):171-175.
  • Lawesson, J.E. (s.a.) Pers. obs. field notes, collections 1985-7.
  • Mauchamp, A., Atkinson, R. (2008-2009) Pérdida de hábitat rápida, reciente e irreversible:Los Bosques de Scalesia en las Islas Galápagos. Fundación Charles Darwin Research Station
  • Moll, E. (1990) A Report on the Distribution of Introduced Plants on Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos Charles Darwin Reaearch Station, unpublished.
  • Pankhurst, R.J. (2001) Rosaceae. En: Stevens, W.D., C. Ulloa, A. Pool & O.M. Montiel (eds.). Flora de Nicaragua. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 85: 2202–2206.
  • Prado, L., et al. (1995) Informes de salida al campo, abril y mayo de 1995, Isla Isabela, Investigacion agroforestal. Charles Darwin Research Station, unpublished, Archivos de Botanica.
  • Restrepo, A., Bush, M., Correa-Metrio, A., Conroy, J., Gardener, M. R., Jaramillo, P., Steinitz-Kannan, M., Overpeck, J. & Colinvaux, P. (2011) Impacts of climate variability and human colonization on the vegetation of the Galápagos Islands. Ecology: 1-42.
  • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa, C., Pool, A., & Montiel, O.M. (2001) Flora de Nicaragua. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 85: i–xlii, 1–2666.
  • Tapia, W., Jaramillo, P. (1999) Las especies introducidas agresivas en las islas Galápagos y medidas tomadas para su control. El Parquero. 40 años del Parque Nacional Galápagos, 14-16.
  • Tropicos.org. (2017) Database of Missouri Botanical Garden. Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. 06 Oct 2017
  • Tye, A., M. C. Soria and M. R. Gardener (2002) A strategy for Galapagos weeds. In Veitch, C. R. and Clout, M. N. (eds.) Turning the tide: the eradication of native species. IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.