Galapagos Species Checklist


Cinchona pubescens

Vahl

Domain Eukaryota
Kingdom Plantae
Division Magnoliophyta
Class Magnoliopsida (= Dicotyledoneae)
Order Gentianales
Family Rubiaceae
Genus Cinchona

Cinchona pubescens  Vahl

 

English common name: Quinine, Red Quinine Tree

Spanish common name: Cascarilla, Quinina, Quina

Taxonomic comments: Syn.: Cinchona succirubra Pav. ex Klotzsch fide Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew & Missouri Botanical Garden (2010)

Name status: Accepted name; taxon occurs in Galapagos.

Description: Evergreen tree up to 15 m in height with broad, opposite leaves. Flowers are fragrant, white or pink and arranged in clusters. Fruits are cylindrical capsules up to 4 cm long that contain numerous small, light and winged seeds which are dispersed by wind.

Usually produces a main trunk but also often develops several trunks a short distance away, which emerge by suckering from underground stems. This way, tree takes on a multi-stemmed growth form, with the individual stems still connected. Leaves turn bright red when old.

Year of first record: 1971

Last updated: 16 Oct 2017

Origin

  • In
    Introduced
  • Na
    Native

  • Ac
    Accidental
  • Cu
    Cultivated
  • Er
    Eradicated
  • Es
    Escaped

    Taxon introduced for agricultural or domestic use; naturalized in the wild.

  • Ic
    Intercepted
  • AcQ
    Questionable Accidental
  • NaQ
    Questionable Native

Distribution

region.name

Galapagos island groups: Santa Cruz.

11,000 ha on Santa Cruz.

Preference for altitude zone in Galapagos: Humid zone.

Native range: Natural distribution is from Costa Rica to Bolivia at altitudes between 300 and 3300 m.


Please be aware that this distribution map is automatically generated from database records (CDF and external specimens, literature records, and observations) and may not accurately reflect the currently-known distribution for all species.

General Ecology

Habitat preferences: Native to neotropical forests, prefers humid and warm upland sites. Shade-tolerant and can tolerate a wide range of ecological conditions, including drought.

Substrate or host preferences: Often grows in steep gorges that are difficult to access and in disturbed habitats in its native range in Ecuador, as well as in Hawaii and Galápagos. Soils in Ecuador are volcanic and rich in organic matter, nitrogen and phosphorus, warm and slightly acid.

Trophic role: Primary producer (autotroph: an organism that does not require organic matter to feed on but is capable to produce its own energy).

Growth form: Trees.

Reproductive biology: Youngest seed producing trees found in Galápagos were 2 years old, 1.8 m tall and with a DBH of 1.5 cm. Germinates well in dense vegetation and spreads rapidly by light windborne seeds and also vegetatively by suckering from stems.

Reproduction mode: Both sexual and asexual.

Dispersal propagule: Various.
Seeds and stem sprouts.

Galapagos associated species: Mainly epiphytic ferns, like Phlebodium pseudoaureum and Polypodium tridens

Natural enemies: Fungi species associated with C. pubescens: Elsinoe cinchonae Jenkins, Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands, Prillieuxina cinchonae J.A. Stev. (Systematic Mycology and Microbiology Laboratory).

Economic use: Quinine extracted from the bark was historically used as an antimalarial drug and quinidine is still used today as an antiarrhythmic drug. Wood is used for construction.

Invasion Ecology

Aggressive status: Transformer (An introduced species that is in the process of drastically, fundamentally and often irreversibly changing natural habitat.).

Form of introduction: Intentional introduction.

Impact in Galapagos: Started spreading about 30 years after introduction in the 1940s. Has invaded farmland and all vegetation zones in the highlands of the National Park: Scalesia-, Miconia- and Fern-Sedge zones. Transformed formerly treeless vegetation zone into near-forests. Reduces cover and diversity of most other plant species, especially of endemic species, like the shrub Miconia robinsoniana, the herbs Justicia galapagana, Pilea baurii and the tree fern Cyathea weatherbyana. Dense stands of quinine reduce light by 87 % and increase nutrient availability in the soil.

Known pest elsewhere: Hawaii, Tahiti, Java oeste

Related species impact: Cinchona calisaya in Hawaii.

Persistence mechanisms: Seeds

Management

Control history in Galapagos: Successful control methods now applied by the Galapagos National Park Service are: manual control by uprooting of trees and hand-pulling of smaller plants. Chemical control by ‘hack and squirt’ technique, which consists of applying a mixture of picloram and metsulfuron to connecting machete cuts around the circumference of the tree trunks.

Studies on the impacts of these measures showed that despite an initial decline in species cover, native plants recover again and cover as well as species diversity increases 2 years after control took place. However, it is unclear whether this recovery is transient, since long-term data is lacking. Control actions probably also facilitated the establishment of other introduced species and seemed to be assisting the spread of the highly invasive blackberry (Rubus niveus) in the highlands of Santa Cruz Island. In addition, constant hand-pulling of germinated seedlings would be necessary to assure control success in the long run.

Control methods elsewhere: Not known

Indicator

Temperature tolerance: Thermonormal (warm: an organism adapted to moderate temperatures, an indicator of habitats subjected to moderate temperatures).

Continentality: Continental (Distribution of a terrestrial species far away from the ocean.).

Light tolerance: Heliophytic (an indicator of moderately light-exposed habitats).

Precipitation preference: Ombrophilous (an organism that depends on regular wetting by rainwater, an indicator of habitats that frequently receive rainfall).

Adaptation to substrate moisture: Humid (indicator of substrates often saturated with water).

pH preference: Acidophytic (an indicator of low, acidic pH).

Eutrophication tolerance: Eutrophic (indicating high nutrient levels).

Exposure tolerance: Moderately exposed (indicators of habitats exposed to light, rain, or wind).

Photos

Literature

  • Acosta Solís, M. (1945) Hábitat y distribución de las Cinchonas en el Ecuador. Flora, Revista al Servicio de las Ciencias Naturales y Biológicas, Inst. Ecuatoriano de Ciencias Naturales 6, 15–16, 9–18.
  • Andersson, L. (1998) A revision of the Genus Cinchona (Rubiaceae-Cinchoneae). Memoirs of the New York Bot. Garden, Volume 80.
  • Buddenhagen, C. E., Rentería, J. L., Gardener, M.; Wilkinson, S. R., Soria, M., Yánez, P.; Tye, A., Valle, R. (2004) The control of a highly invasive tree Cinchona pubescens in Galapagos. Weed Technology 18, 1194–1202.
  • Gardener, M., Atkinson, R., Rueda, D. & Hobbs, R. (2010) Optimizando la restauración de la degradada parte alta de Galápagos: un marco conceptual. Informe Galápagos 2009-2010.
  • Gardener, M. R., A. Tye and S.R. Wilkinson (1999) Control of Introduced plants in the Galapagos Islands. Twelfth Australian Weeds Conference, Tasmania Weed Society. Pp 396-400.
  • Guézou, A., Trueman, M., Buddenhagen, E., Chamorro, S., Guerrero, A.M., Pozo, P., Atkinson, R. (2010) An extensive Alien Plan Inventory from the Inhabited Areas of Galapagos Plos One/ www.plosone.org. Volume 5/ Issue 4/e10276
  • Hamann, O. (1984) Changes and threats to the vegetation. In: Perry, R. (ed.) Key Environments: Galapagos. Pergamon Press, Oxford, p. 115-131.
  • Hamann, O. (1974) Contributions to the Flora and Vegetation of the Galapagos Islands: III. Five new Floristic Records. Bot. Notiser 127: 309-316.
  • Itow, S. (1997) List of Plant Specimens collected in the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador. Bulletin of the Faculty of Liberal Arts, Nagasaki University, Natural Science, 38 (1): 53-144.
  • Itow, S. (2003) Zonation pattern, succession process and invasion by aliens in species-poor insular vegetation of the Galapagos Islands. Global Environmental Research, 7:39-58.
  • Jäger, H. (2011) Cinchona pubescens In: Roloff, A., Weisgerber, H., Lang, U., Stimm, B. (Eds.): Enzyklopädie der Holzgewächse, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 58. Erg.Lfg. 06/11, 14 pp.
  • Jäger, H., Kowarik, I., Tye, A. (2009) Destruction without extinction: long-term impacts of an invasive tree species on Galápagos highland vegetation. Journal of Ecology 97, 1252–1263.
  • Jäger, H., Kowarik, I. (2010) Resilience of native plant community following manual control of invasive Cinchona pubescens in Galápagos. Restoration Ecology 18, 103–112.
  • Jäger, H., Tye, A., Kowarik, I. (2007) Tree invasion in naturally treeless environments: Impacts of quinine (Cinchona pubescens) trees on native vegetation in Galápagos Institute of Ecology, Department of Ecosystem Sciences and Plant Ecology, Technical University Berlin, Rothenburgstr. 12, 12165 Berlin, Germany.
  • Jaramillo, P. (1998) Distribución Espacial de la Vegetación Vascular y Dispersión de Especies Introducidas dentro del Parque Nacional Galápagos. Tesis de Doctorado en Biología, Universidad Central del Ecuador. Especialización ECOLOGIA DE POBLACIONES.
  • Jaramillo, P. (1999) Impact of Human Activities on the Native Plant Life in Galapagos National Park. Galapagos Report, 50-55 (Eds P. Ospina and E. Muñóz.). Quito-Ecuador: Fundación Natura and World Wildlife Fund (WWF).
  • Jaramillo, P. (1999) Impacto de las Actividades Humanas sobre las comunidades de plantas nativas en el Parque Nacional Galápagos. Informe Galápagos, 50-55 (Eds P. Ospina and E. Muñóz). Quito-Ecuador: Fundación Natura y el Fondo Mundial para la Naturaleza (WWF).
  • Jaramillo, P. (2000) Plantas amenazadas y medidas de conservación en varias islas del archipiélago. Informe Galápagos, 70-76 (Eds P. Ospina and E. Muñoz.). Quito-Ecuador: Fundación Natura y el Fondo Mundial para la Naturaleza (WWF).
  • Junaedi, D.I., Mutaqien, Z. (2010) Diversity of tree communities in Mount Patuha region, West Java. Biodiversitas 11 (2): 75-81
  • Mauchamp, A., Atkinson, R. (2008-2009) Pérdida de hábitat rápida, reciente e irreversible:Los Bosques de Scalesia en las Islas Galápagos. Fundación Charles Darwin Research Station
  • Moll, E. (1990) A Report on the Distribution of Introduced Plants on Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos Charles Darwin Reaearch Station, unpublished.
  • Porter, D.M. (1983) Vascular Plants of the Galapagos: Origins and Dispersal. In: Bowman, R.I., Berson, M. & Leviton, A.E. (eds.): Patterns of evolution in Galápagos organisms. Pacific Division, AAAS, San Francisco, California, p. 33-96.
  • Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Missouri Botanical Garden (eds.) (2013) The Plant List, Version 1.1. Published on the Internet; http://www.theplantlist.org/ (accessed 1st January).
  • Schofield, E.K. (1984) Plants of the Galapagos Islands. Field Guide and Travel Journal. Universe Books, New York, 159 pp.
  • Shimizu, Y. (1997) Competitive relationships between tree species of Scalesia (S. pedunculata, S. cordata, S. microcephala) and introduced plants (Cinchona succirubra, Psidium guajava, Lantana camara) with reference to regeneration mechanism of Scalesia forests in the Galápagos Islands. Repr. from Regional Views 11, 23–172. Inst. for Applied Geography, Komazawa Univ., Tokyo.
  • Tapia, W., Jaramillo, P. (1999) Las especies introducidas agresivas en las islas Galápagos y medidas tomadas para su control. El Parquero. 40 años del Parque Nacional Galápagos, 14-16.
  • Tye, A., M. C. Soria and M. R. Gardener (2002) A strategy for Galapagos weeds. In Veitch, C. R. and Clout, M. N. (eds.) Turning the tide: the eradication of native species. IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.