Galapagos Species Checklist


Sphyrna lewini

(Griffith & Smith, 1834)

Domain Eukaryota
Kingdom Animalia
Division Chordata
Class Chondrichthyes (= Elasmobranchii)
Order Carcharhiniformes
Family Sphyrnidae
Subfamily Carcharhininae
Genus Sphyrna

Sphyrna lewini  (Griffith & Smith, 1834)

 

English common name: Scalloped hammerhead

Spanish common name: tiburón martillo

Local name: tiburón martillo

Taxonomic comments: Syn.: Cestracion leeuwenii Day, 1865, Cestracion oceanica Garman, 1913, Sphyrna diplana Springer, 1941, Zygaena erythraea Klunzinger, 1871, Zygaena indica van Hasselt, 1823, Zygaena lewini Griffith & Smith, 1834, fide Appeltans et al. (2010)

Name status: Accepted name; taxon occurs in Galapagos.

Description: Size: At least 4.2 m. Silver-gray to gray-brown, fading to white underside. Underside tips of pectoral fins dusky. Rear edge of vental fin straight.

Habitat: Areas of deep water near dropp-offs. Form large schools of 400 individuals, swimming well organized

Last updated: 11 Jan 2013

Origin

  • In
    Introduced
  • Na
    Native

  • En
    Endemic
  • Hy
    Hypothetical
  • Id
    Indigenous

    Taxon native but not endemic.

  • Mi
    Migrant
  • EnQ
    Questionable Endemic
  • Re
    Resident
  • Va
    Vagrant

IUCN Status

Considered to be facing a very high risk of extinction in the wild.

Endangered - Considered to be facing a very high risk of extinction in the wild.


The IUCN Red List assessments presented here may deviate from the global IUCN listings for the following reasons:

  • for well-known species groups, such as vascular plants or vertebrates, updates proposed to the IUCN are shown, rather than the outdated, but currently-used status;
  • for poorly-known species groups, such as lichenized fungi, a general assessment is not currently possible, therefore the list presented here is the regional IUCN Red List for the Galapagos Archipelago.

Distribution

region.name

Bioregions: South-eastern.

Galapagos island groups: Santa Cruz.

Tropical waters, less frequent in temperate regions; know from sothern California to Ecuador including Galapagos. California to Northern Peru and all the offshore islands of the Eastern Pacific. Circumtropical.


Please be aware that this distribution map is automatically generated from database records (CDF and external specimens, literature records, and observations) and may not accurately reflect the currently-known distribution for all species.

Literature

  • Appeltans, W., Bouchet, P., Boxshall, G.A., Fauchald, K., Gordon, D.P., Hoeksema, B.W., Poore, G.C.B., van Soest, R.W.M., Stöhr, S., Walter, T.C., Costello, M.J. (eds.) (2010) World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS). Available online at http://www.marinespecies.org.
  • Baum, J., et. al. (2007) Sphyrna lewini www.iucnredlist.org
  • Constant, P. (2007) Marine Life of the Galapagos. The Diver's guide to Fishes, Whales, Dolphins and marine Invertebrates, 307 pp.
  • Edgar, G.J., Fariña, J.M., Calvopiña, M., Martínez, C. & Banks, S. (2002) Comunidades submareales rocosas II: Peces y macroinvertebrados móviles. In: Danulat, E. & Edgar, G.J. (eds.) (2002): Reserva Marina de Galápagos. Línea Base de la Biodiversidad. Fundación Charles Darwin/Servicio Parque Nacional Galápagos, Santa Cruz, Galápagos, Ecuador, p. 68-97.
  • Grove, J.S., Lavenberg, R.J. (1997) The Fishes of the Galapagos Islands. Stanford University Press, Stanford California. 862 pp.
  • Hickin, N. (1979) Animal life of the Galapagos. Ferundune Books, Faringdon, U.K., 236 pp.
  • Humann, P., Deloach, N. (2003) Reef Fish Identification - Galapagos. New World Publication, Inc. Florida USA & Libri Mundi, Quito, Ecuador, 226 pp.
  • IUCN (2010) IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. . Downloaded on 26 April 2010.
  • McCosker, J.E., Rosenblatt, R.H. (2010) The fishes of the Galápagos Archipelago: an update. Proc. Calif. Acad. Sc., Ser. 4, vol. 61, Suppl. II, no. 11: 167-195.