Galapagos Species Checklist

Certhidea olivacea Gould, 1837

Pinzón cantor verde, Green Warbler Finch

Green Warbler Finch, Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos. Photo: CDF Archive.
Green Warbler Finch, Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos. Photo: CDF Archive.

The smallest of all Darwin finches, about 8 grams, and the species with the thinnest beak.

Threats Seems strongly affected by the parasitic introduced fly Philornis downsi, particularly in conjunction with heavy rainfall when parents are not able to feed the chicks extra to compensate for the blood loss. Pox prevalence was also found to increase for this species.

Taxonomy

Domain
Eukaryota

Kingdom
Animalia

Phylum
Chordata

Class
Aves

Order
Passeriformes

Family
Thraupidae

Genus
Certhidea

Species
olivacea

Taxon category: Accepted

This species is closely related to the Grey Warbler Finch, and were formerly considered conspecfic, but both species differ in appearance, distribution, habitat, and song. Syn.: Certhidea olivacea ridgwayi Rothschild & Hartert, 1899, Certhidea olivacea olivacea Gould, 1837, Certhidea olivacea mentalis Ridgway, 1894, Certhidea olivacea luteola Ridgway, 1894, Certhidea olivacea cinerascens Ridgway, 1890, Certhidea olivacea bifasciata Ridgway, 1894, Certhidea olivacea becki Rothschild, 1898.

Status

Least concern

Ecology

Preference for an altitude zone in Galapagos: Dry zone - humid zone

Substrate or host preferences: Forages in trees and shrubs, searching foliage leaf clusters and epiphytes and probing mosses (especially during the dry season), for arthropods.

Feeding type: Insectivorous

Trophic role: Carnivorous

Reproductive biology: Male displays in front of a dome shape nest. Once chosen, the pair either use this nest or build a new one. Only females incubate (two to three eggs), both feed the chicks. Fledglings stay for up to 6 weeks with a parent, either with the male while the female starts a new clutch, or, one with the female and the other with the male.

Distribution

Distribution map of specimen collection localities or observation records for this species in our collections database.

Distribution: C. olivacea is found on the larger central and western islands. Present on Pinzón, Fernandina, Isabela, Rabida, Santa Cruz, Santiago Islands.

References

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  • Wiedenfeld, D.A. (2006) Aves, the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador. Check List 2006 2(2): 1-27.
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  • Salvin, O. (1876) On the avifauna of the Galápagos Archipelago. Transactions of the Zoological Society of London 9: 447-510.
  • Fessl, B. Tebbich, S. (2002) Philornis downsi - a recently discovered parasite on the Galápagos archipelago - a threat to Darwin's finches? Ibis 144: 445-451.
  • Swarth, H.S. (1931) The Avifauna of the Galapagos Islands. Occ. Pap. Calif. Acad. Sci. 18: 1-299.
  • Fessl, B. Couri, M.S. & Tebbich, S. (2001) Philornis downsi Dodge & Aitken, new to the Galapagos Islands (Diptera, Muscidae). Studia Dipterologic 8: 317-322.
  • Kleindorfer, S. Dudaniec, R.Y. (2006) Increasing prevalence of avian poxvirus in Darwin’s finches and its effect on male pairing success. Journal of Avian Biology 37: 69-76.
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  • Farrington, H. Petren, K. (2011) A century of genetic change and metapopulation dynamics in the Galápagos warbler finches (Certhidea). Evolution 65:3148-3161.
  • Grant, B.R. Grant, P.R. (2002) Lack of premating isolation at the base of a phylogenic tree. The American Naturalist 160:1-19.
  • Grant, P.R. Grant, B., Petren, K. & Keller, L (2005) Extinction behind our backs: the possible fate of one of the Darwin's finch species on Isla Floreana, Galápagos. Biological Conservation 122:499-503.
  • Petren, K. Grant, B. & Grant, P. (1999) A phylogeny of Darwin's finches based on microsatellite DNA length variation. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B-Biological Sciences 266:321-329.
  • Petren, K. Grant, P., Grant, B. & Keller, L. (2005) Comparative landscape genetics and the adaptive radiation of Darwin’s finches: the role of peripheral isolation. Molecular Ecology 14:2943-2957.
  • Tonnis, B. Grant, P., Grant, B. & Petren, K. (2005) Habitat selection and ecological speciation in Galápagos warbler finches (Certhidea olivacea and Certhidea fusca). Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B-Biological Sciences 272:819-826.
  • Yang, S. Patton, J. (1981) Genic variability and differentiation in the Galápagos finches The Auk 98:230-242
  • Zylberberg, M. Lee, K., Klasing, K. & Wikelski, M. (2012) Increasing avian pox prevalence varies by species, and with immune function, in Galápagos finches. Biological Conservation 153:72-79.
  • Freeland, J. Boag, P. (1999) Phylogenetics of Darwin's finches: Paraphyly in the tree-finches, and two divergent lineages in the Warbler Finch. The Auk 116:577-588.
  • Cimadom, A. Ulloa, A., Meidl, P., Zöttl, M., Zöttl, E., Fessl, B., Nemeth, E., Dvorak, M., Cunninghame, F. & Tebbich, S. (2014) Invasive parasites, habitat change and heavy rainfall reduce breeding success in Darwin’s Finches. Plos One 9:e107518.
  • Farrington, H. Lawson, L., Clark, C. & Petren, K. (2014) The evolutionary history of Darwin's finches: speciation, gene flow, and introgression in a fragmented landscape. Evolution doi 10.1111/evo.12484.
  • IUCN (2015) The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015-4. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 20 November 2015.
  • Lamichhaney, S. Berglund, J., Sällman Almén, M., Maqbool, K., Grabherr, M., Martinez-Barrio, A., Promerova, M., Rubin, C.J., Wang, C., Zamani, N., Grant, B.R., Grant, P.R., Webster, M.T., Andersson, L. (2015) Evolution of Darwin’s finches and their beaks revealed by genome sequencing Nature 518: 371-386. doi:10.1038/nature14181
  • Remsen, J.V. Areta, J.I.Jr., Cadena, C.D., Claramunt, S., Jaramillo, A., Pacheco, J.F., Pérez-Emán, J., Robbins, M.B., Stiles, F.G., Stotz, D.F., Zimmer, K. J. (2016) A Classification of the Bird Species of South America. South American Classification Committee. American Ornithologists' Union http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm
  • IUCN (2017) The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species Version 2016-3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 03 February 2017.

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