Galapagos Species Checklist

Spheniscus mendiculus Sundevall, 1871

Pingüino de Galápagos, Galapagos Penguin

Photo: CDF Archive.
Photo: CDF Archive.

Taxonomy

Domain
Eukaryota

Kingdom
Animalia

Phylum
Chordata

Class
Aves

Order
Sphenisciformes

Family
Spheniscidae

Genus
Spheniscus

Species
mendiculus

Taxon category: Accepted

Status

Endangered

Ecology

Feeding type: Piscivorous

Trophic role: Carnivorous

Distribution

Distribution: Breeding on Fernandina, Isabela, Floreana, Santiago (Lougie), Bartolomé, Sombrero Chino. Sometimes, individuals are seen on Santa Cruz, Santa Fe, Baltra, Dhapne and Genovesa in 2014.

References

  • Wiedenfeld, D.A. (2006) Aves, the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador. Check List 2006 2(2): 1-27.
  • Jiménez-Uzcátegui, G. Milstead, B., Márquez, C., Zabala, J., Buitrón, P., Llerena, A., et al. (2007) Galapagos vertebrates: endangered status and conservation actions. Galapagos Report 2006–2007. Charles Darwin Foundation, Puerto Ayora, p. 104–110.
  • Jiménez-Uzcátegui, G. Wiedenfeld, D.A. (2002) Marine birds. Reserva marina de Galápagos. Línea base de la biodiversidad. Danulat, E. & G.J. Edgar (eds.). Fundación Charles Darwin/Servicio Parque Nacional Galápagos, Santa Cruz, Galápagos, Ecuador. p. 343–372.
  • Granizo, T. Pacheco, C., Rivadeneira, M. B., Guerrero M. & Suárez, L. (eds.) (2002) Libro Rojo de las Aves del Ecuador. SIMBIOE/Conservation International/EcoCiencia/Ministerio del Ambiente/IUCN. Serie Libros Rojos del Ecuador, tomo 2. Quito, Ecuador.
  • Swash, A. Still, R. (2000) Birds, mammals, and reptiles of the Galapagos Islands, an identification guide. Yale University Press, New Haven, Connecticut, USA, 168 pp.
  • Harris, M.P. (1973) The Galápagos avifauna. Condor 75(3): 265-278.
  • Salvin, O. (1876) On the avifauna of the Galápagos Archipelago. Transactions of the Zoological Society of London 9: 447-510.
  • Vargas, F.H. (2006) The ecology of small populations of birds in changing climate. Thesis submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Lady Margaret Hall, University of Oxoford.
  • Castro, I. Phillips, A. (1996) A Guide to the Birds of the Galapagos Islands. Christopher Helm Publishers Ltd., London.
  • Vargas, H. Snell, H. L. Snell, G. Miller, R. Miller & Serrano, H. (1997) First report of penguins nesting on Isla Floreana. Noticias de Galápagos 58: 30-32.
  • Levin, I.I. Outlaw, D.C., Hernán Vargas, F., & Parker, P.G. (2009) Plasmodium blood parasite found in endangered Galapagos penguins (Spheniscus mendiculus). Biological Conservation 142(12): 3191-3195.
  • Deem, S.L. Merkel, J., Ballweber, J., Vargas, F.H., Cruz, M.B., & Parker, P.G. (2010) Exposure to Toxoplasma gondii in Galapagos penguins (Spheniscus mendiculus) and flightless cormorants (Phalacrocorax harrisi) in the Galapagos Islands. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 46: 1005-1011.
  • Swarth, H.S. (1931) The Avifauna of the Galapagos Islands. Occ. Pap. Calif. Acad. Sci. 18: 1-299.
  • Travis, E.K. Hernan Vargas, F., Merkel, J., Gottdenker, N., Miller, R.E., & Parker, P.G. (2006) Hematology, serum chemistry, and serology of Galapagos penguins (Spheniscus mendiculus) in the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 42(3): 625-632.
  • Merkel, J. Jones, H.I., Whiteman, N.K., Gottdenker, N., Vargas, H., Travis, E.K., Miller, R.E., & Parker, P.G. (2007) Microfilariae in Galápagos penguins (Spheniscus mendiculus) and flightless cormorants (Phalacrocorax harrisi): genetics, morphology, and prevalence. Journal of Parasitology, 93(3): 495–503.
  • Siers, S. Merkel, J., Bataille, A., Vargas, F.H. & Parker, P.G. (2010) Eccological correlates of microfilariae prevalence in endangered Galápagos birds. Journal of Parasitology, 96(2): 259-272.
  • Parker, P.G. Whiteman, N.K., & Miller, R.E. (2006) Conservation medicine on the Galápagos Islands: partnerships among behavioral, population, and veterinarian scientists. The Auk 123(3): 625-638.
  • Jiménez-Uzcátegui, G. Veran, S., Devineau, O., Naranjo, S., Steinfurth, A. & Vargas, F.H. (2010) Is climate change affecting the Galápagos penguin? 7th International Penguin Conference. Boston, USA
  • Jiménez-Uzcátegui, G. (2010) Monitoreo del pingüino de Galápagos y cormorán no volador 2010. Informe tecnico para la Fundación Charles Darwin y Parque Nacional Galápagos. Puerto Ayora, Ecuador, 18 pp.
  • Wiedenfeld, D.A. Jiménez-Uzcátegui, G. (2008) Critical problems for bird conservation in the Galapagos Island. Cotinga 29: 22-27.
  • Valle, C.A. (1986) Status of the Galápagos Penguin and Flightless Cormorant Populations in 1985. Noticias Galápagos 43: 16–17.
  • Valle, C.A. Coulter, M.C. (1987) Present status of the Flightless Cormorant, Galápagos Penguin and greater Flamingo populations in the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador, after the 1982–1983 El Niño. Condor 89(2): 276–281.
  • Nims, B.D. Vargas, F.H., Merkel, J. & Parker, P.G. (2008) Low genetic diversity and lack of population structure in the endangered Galápagos penguin (Spheniscus mendiculus). Conserv Genet 9: 1413–1420.
  • Kikkawa, E.F. Tsuda, T.T., Sumiyama, D., Naruse, T.K., Fukuda, M., Kurita, M., Wilson, R.P., LeMaho, Y., Miller, G.D., Tsuda, M., Murata, K., Kulski, J.K. & Inoko, H. (2009) Trans-species polymorphism of the Mhc class II DRB-like gene in banded penguins (genus Spheniscus). Immunogenetics (2009) 61: 341–352.
  • Ksepka, D.T. Bertelli, S. & Giannini, N.P. (2006) The phylogeny of the living and fossil Sphenisciformes (penguins). Cladistics 22: 412–441.
  • Hickin, N. (1979) Animal life of the Galapagos. Ferundune Books, Faringdon, U.K., 236 pp.
  • Lanteri, A.A. (2001) Biogeografía de las Islas Galápagos: Principales aportes de los estudios filogenéticos. Introducción a la Biogeografia en Latinoamérica: Conceptos, teorías, métodos y aplicacions. Vol. I, Ciencias, UNAM, México Pp. 141-151.
  • Trillmich, F. (1992) Conservation problems on Galápagos: the showcase of evolution in danger. Naturwissenschaften 79: 1-6.
  • Loope, L.L. Hamann, O. & Stone, C.P. (1987) Comparative conservation biology of oceanic archipelagoes Hawaii and the Galápagos. BioScience 38(4): 272-282.
  • Romero, C. (2014) Penguin personal Observation in Genovesa pers. com.
  • Carrera-Játiva Rodríguez-Hidalgo, R., Sevilla, C., & G. Jiménez-Uzcátegui. (2014) Gastrointestinal parasites in the Galápagos Penguin Spheniscus mendiculus and the Flightless Cormorant Phalacrocorax harrisi in the Galápagos Islands. Marine Ornithology 42: 77-80.
  • IUCN (2015) The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015-4. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 20 November 2015.

The “Charles Darwin Foundation for the Galapagos Islands”, in French “Fondation Charles Darwin pour les îles Galapagos”, Association International sans but lucratif (“AISBL”), has its registered office located at Chaussée de la Hulpe 177 Bte 20 (rez) - 1170, Brussels, and is registered under the trade registry of Brussels under the number 0409.359.103.

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