Galapagos Species Checklist

Opuntia echios var. echios Howell

tuna gigante, tuna, cactus

Opuntia echios var. echios Howell, Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos. Photo: Ruben Heleno, CDF, 2011.
Opuntia echios var. echios Howell, Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos. Photo: Ruben Heleno, CDF, 2011.

An impressive tree cactus with flat, spiny pads. The flowers are bright yellow. Adult cacti have orange-brown trunks with flaking bark. Popular in gardens for the sculpture-like quality.





Magnoliopsida (= Dicotyledoneae)





var. echios

Taxon category: Species with Infraspecific Taxa

Syn.: Opuntia myriacantha Weberfide Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew & Missouri Botanical Garden (2010)

Taxon origin: Endemic




  • Wiggins, I.L. Porter, D.M. (1971) Flora of the Galapagos Islands Standford University Press, Stanford.
  • Lundh, J.P. (1995) Some additional information and comments on the Annotated Check list of Vascular Plants of the Galapagos Islands by Lawesson, Adsersen and Bentley. Charles Darwin Research Station, unpublished.
  • Lawesson, J.E. Adsersen, H. & Bentley, P. (1987) An updated and annotated check list of the vascular plants of the Galapagos islands. Rept. Bot. Inst., Univ. Aarhus 16: 1-74.
  • Hicks, D.J. Mauchamp, A. (1996) Evolution and conservation biology of the Galapagos Opuntias (Cactaceae). Yearbook Cactus Succulent Soc. Am. 4:
  • Jørgensen, P.M. León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999) Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis, 1181 pp.
  • (2017) Database of Missouri Botanical Garden. Missouri Botanical Garden. 06 Oct 2017 <
  • Atkinson, R. Guézou, A. & Jaramillo, P. (2009) Siémbrame en tu jardín - Plantas nativas para jardines en Galápagos. Fundación Charles Darwin, Puerto Ayora, Galápagos, Ecuador, 151 pp.
  • Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew Missouri Botanical Garden (eds.) (2013) The Plant List, Version 1.1. Published on the Internet; (accessed 1st January).
  • Stewart, A. (1911) A botanical survey of the Galápagos Islands. Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. 4th Series, 1: 7-288.
  • Anderson, E.F. Walkington, D.L. (1970) New Combinations and Taxa in the Cactaceae of the Galápagos Islands. Madroño 20(5): 256.
  • Helsen, P. Verdyck, P., Tye, A., Van Dongen, S. (2008) Low levels of genetic differentiation between Opuntia echios varieties on Santa Cruz (Galápagos) Springer-Verlag. 2009
  • Anderson, E.F. (1967.) An Account of My Cactus Collecting Trip to the Galapagos Islands. Cactus and Succulent J. Amer. 39:186-199.

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